The Kalkriese type

The existence of this type was unknown until excavations at Kalkriese (DEU) produced soundly dated examples. Similar fittings were then recognised from other sites, although they had not been recognised for what they were because of the absence of lobate hinges, decorated bosses, and tie loops. Thanks to a 2018 find at Kalkriese itself, we now know that the girth hoops were fastened with straps and buckles, but also that there were no lesser shoulder guards and that the upper shoulder guards were curved at the end. The main period of use of the Kalkriese type was c.10 B.C.-A.D. 45 and finds from southern England show that it was still in use at the time of the invasion of Britain.